Friday, March 30, 2018

In a hybrid, which conversations should happen in which modality?

Drexel's winter term has just concluded, and I finished up teaching my hybrid first-year writing course. Conversation has always been a cornerstone of my teaching, and I am constantly thinking about the best ways to help students have the conversations that drive my courses.

For hybrids, that thinking often revolves around which conversations work best onsite and which work best online.

This term, for some reason, my thinking about this topic crystallized. Influenced by my heavily writing-about-writing/writing studies-influenced pedagogy (1), I was really able to look at which conversations should happen in which modality.

For instance, the many meta conversations we had, conversations in which students analyzed and talked about their own writing and their own writing processes, worked especially well in online, asynchronous message board conversations. I have long seen that students can have stimulating conversations online about topics that might not seem so scintillating in a f2f room, and this term showed that well, as students had great message board dialogues about topics such as organization in writing and citing and documentation practices. These topics might even seem mundane to discuss f2f, but students again pounced on them on our discussions!

Of course, having students converse in writing means they can draw on these conversations in writing instructional ways that don't happen in spoken dialogue: They can go back and revise posts, choose "favorite" posts of other students, etc.

Synchronous, onsite conversations work better for conversations that I might describe loosely as learning about new material, such as when we learned a bit about genre this term in preparation for one of our major projects. Also, onsite works well for kind of free-flowing conversations about assignments and general course matters.

For some types of posts, of course, it all depends. For example, conversations about major writing project topic proposals can be successful in either modality for different reasons. There's a good energy in the room when students call out topics and respond to each other. But asynchronously online, they first have to think closely about their topic to write it out and then respond to each other. Online, I can also leverage my responses to the whole group, and, of course, the conversation is preserved for the rest of the term.

Conversations about readings? It depends on the topic. I think those kinds of conversations can often serve as good "bridge" conversations, perhaps starting online and then moving into the onsite part of the course. Students can be asked to help make explicit connections to facilitate this movement.

In some ways, for a hybrid writing course, especially a first-year course, finding the ideal articulation between online and onsite is the golden ring. Thinking that through in terms of student dialogue and interaction is a key component of that quest.

Note:
1) Drawn from Douglas Downs and Elizabeth Wardle's “Teaching about Writing, Righting Misconceptions: (Re)Envisioning ‘First-Year Composition’ as ‘Introduction to Writing Studies.’” College Composition and Communication 58.4 (2007): 552–84.

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Wednesday, January 31, 2018

Writing Together book coming out soon

The new book that I co-authored with former Drexel student Diana Gasiewski is coming out soon. Writing Together: Ten Weeks Teaching and Studenting in an Online Writing Course will -- fingers crossed! -- be ready by CCCC in Kansas City.

Diana and I are excited -- to say the least -- about the book. It's a narrative of a teacher and student's experience in a first-year OWC. It's written somewhat as a "call and response": I describe in great detail how I approached and taught the course that term, and Diana describes her experience as a student -- we draw from Mary Louise Pratt in calling her experience "studenting" -- that same term.

NCTE, especially Kurt Austin and Bonny Graham, has been a great partner, from concept to cover art.

We hope that our narrative approach to composition scholarship is informative as well as engaging, and that it helps open up new channels of inquiry about the student experience in OWI.

We also would like this book to help refine and enhance not just how we see OWCs and teach them, but how we see our students as collaborators in knowledge-making about our field. We write in our intro, citing many other voices in composition, about how absent student voices can be in our conversations, but we're not picking on comp/rhet: This issue is widespread in education.

Our book aims to be a story of teaching and studenting, of how writers came together in a virtual educational community to work and learn together. Above all, we hope you enjoy it.

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Thursday, November 30, 2017

Inside the node

Researchers in many fields have been studying and mapping networked interactions among groups and individuals, particularly in social media spaces. But I believe no one is better equipped than those of us in OWI in general and composition specifically to study what happens in the nodes themselves. Yes, there is so much in the node for us.
My co-author Diana Gasiewski and I have just submitted to NCTE the final manuscript of our book "Writing Together: Ten Weeks Teaching and Studenting in an Online Writing Course" (more about that very soon). For some of the weeks in the OWC we describe in the book, we provide simple maps of course discussion threads to give readers a glimpse of those interactions -- and how they became more involved as the course progressed. Here is a blown-up piece of one thread:
node image
Many fields, e.g., computer science or sociology or communications, have provided fascinating insights into the black squiggly lines -- how (and sometimes why) entities interact and connect in webs of networks. Software tools have been developed to do this mapping, even do-it-yourself apps like NodeXL (1). Through these analyses, we can see how individuals behave in networked settings, whether it is dozens of students in a class or hundreds of thousands of people on Twitter.
But while comp/rhet folks are also interested in these webs of interaction, we are also uniquely equipped to look within the nodes, as, for us, each contains the artifact we study best: writing (or multimedia).

We can complement and augment the work in other fields that investigates these network maps by describing what happens within these nodes in the context of the overall environment, essentially using our field's tools of inquiry.
I think this gives us a tremendous niche from which to work. Analyzing the links and spaces between nodes is valuable for sure; it shows us in new ways how human beings interact. But in the node, in the node we may find out what we’re thinking, and how specifically that thinking inspired the response -- or the leap to the next node.

Note:

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Thursday, September 28, 2017

What's in a name?

So what's in a name?

Well, in an OWC, potentially a lot.

Your students' representations of themselves in many LMSs still, especially early in the term, will be that simple sequence of two (or three) words: First name, (middle name), last name. While in some cases they can associate a photo or icon with their identity, names are often how others in the class will initially know who they are.

As a teacher, you should encourage students to use names in constructive ways. This may sound obvious and straightforward, and indeed it is not complex, but you should have strategies to help them do this.

For one, you should encourage them, in any communications they write to you or others, to sign off with the name they would like to be known by in the class. Often, the LMS name is not the name the student goes by. This is easy to address onsite, and students take care of it in first-day introductions. However, students report to me that their LMS names are linked to a school's registrar software, so students' LSM presence is locked in to that identifier. They also tell me that it can be quite an ordeal if they want to change the way their names appear.

They should thus be clear, by signing off, what name they want to be called every time. Because of texting interfaces, they may not be in the habit of signing their names, but you can make it clear that signing off is part of their communications, especially when coupled with a complementary close.

In any dialogic class exchange, you should also encourage/require students to address directly by name whoever they are talking to, be it you or other students.

In fact, I strongly encourage that all posts and communications be identified by sender and recipient. These brief moments of identity reflection also can help them think rhetorically. The communicative narcissism that electronic communication might breed -- the nameless text that implicitly says, "Don't you KNOW who I am?" -- can be disrupted by a teaching-learning environment in which you have to think for a moment not just who you are but with whom you are talking.

They can reinforce their identity in an early term icebreaker, a brief exercise/assignment that might include identifying what they want to be called, and perhaps why. 

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Sunday, July 30, 2017

Digital tools for WPA work

I returned last week from the Council of Writing Program Administrators (CWPA) conference in Knoxville. During that typically friendly gathering, Colleagues Traci Gardner and Patti Poblete and I (we're all members of the Digital WPA Committee) facilitated a session about digital tools for WPAs.
Based on the number of attendees and their conversational energy, we have a lot of interesting paths to explore in thinking about how WPAs might use educational technology in their work.
Indeed, much of the dialogue about technologies for writing instructional work, even in this blog, is focused on classroom teaching. Of course, that’s appropriate: We do want to focus on how digital tools can help us in our core classroom mission of working with students.
But during our session, when I asked the assembled group about tools for administering programs, they had a lot to say: How might we, the WPAs, the writing experts on campus, use tools to manage our programs and to help in our work, writing across the curriculum (WAC) style, with other faculty?
It strikes me that writing centers are one way of thinking about this, and centers do have a range of tools they use to 1) manage the workflow of writing center work and 2) facilitate online tutoring sessions. The ongoing conversations on the Wcenter listerv show this.
But in other kinds of WPA work, such as our management of programs and, particularly, WAC-type work we do, we might investigate and talk more about tools and the approaches that accompany them.
In Knoxville, one topic we discussed was that similar to how we use the many, many available tools in our teaching (the list that was generated in our session was somewhat staggering [we're still processing the notes]), could we generate more practice and scholarship with tools that come to the forefront in our work with other faculty?
Sure, there are always-present concerns that accompany such cross-campus work. For instance, we could position ourselves well as tech experts in a WAC/WID sense, but then we could see our roles as WPAs morph into instructional designers or tech support people. 
I think if you get into faculty development, it's not a negative to have some instructional design flavor to your work (much like the best instructional designers I've encountered have teacher "blood" in them).
But how many of us have a good mastery of digital tools that we can recommend specific ones to colleagues to help them improve their use of writing in their courses? How many of us even have enough fluency in our own local LMS systems to the degree that we can help faculty use these sometimes-cantankerous-writing-wise systems to teach writing more effectively?
These are all good questions about how WPAs might work, as my colleague Jessie Borgman puts it, as OWPAs, or Online WPAs (1). It appears there is a thread of conversation here that many people are eager to take part in, and we might do more to cultivate it.
Note:
1) See "The Online Writing Program Administrator (OWPA): Maintaining a Brand in the Age of MOOCs." Writing and Composing in the Age of MOOCs. Edited by Elizabeth Monske and Kris Blair, 2017.

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Friday, May 26, 2017

Building a prompt III: Some examples

Last time, I wrote about prompt characteristics. Last last time, I wrote about prompt types.
So now that you can really put an eye on it, here are some example prompts to demonstrate how these types and characteristics might manifest themselves. I don't provide a detailed anatomy of the prompts, but I hope they illustrate what I described in my past two posts. 
First, here’s a prompt designed to get students talking about a reading and then exploring how that reading applies to their own work (1):
Allen, frustrations and connections
Hi all,
Allen, in her article, talks about frustration with writing. She talks about myths. She talks about imitation. She talks about connecting with others.
Did any of her advice particularly resonate with you? What myths about writing have you held in your life? Do you believe in “the Inspired Writer” or something like it? Have your struggles with writing changed, even in the course of this year?
Looking forward to reading these,
Prof. Warnock
Here is another prompt focused on a reading. This was a challenging reading, so I provided students with increasing layers of complexity, ending with an invitation for them to think more broadly about the topics raised in that piece:
Activity Theory
Dear students,
Yes, this is the most challenging reading of the term so far, but it’s interesting for our purposes, so I hope you engage with it. The first posters here can answer these questions: What does Russell want to do with this article – what’s his purpose? What is Activity Theory?
Later posters can answer this. What does Russell mean by “But writing does not exist apart from its uses, for it is a tool for accomplishing object(ive)s beyond itself” (8). How can Activity Theory help people re-think general writing courses? Why might that be important for you?
Looking forward to your thoughts,
Prof. Warnock
Work Cited
Russell, David. “Activity Theory and Its Implications for Writing Instruction.” Preprint version. In Reconceiving Writing, Rethinking Writing Instruction. Ed. Joseph Petraglia. (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum,1995): 51-78. Web.
OWI, as I said two posts ago, allows you to "also use prompts to have them work on/explore specific aspects of writing"; such prompts also allow them to make good use of course writing texts, in this case The Norton Field Guide to Writing:
Analyzing your own argument
Dear students,
I’d like you to choose a post you wrote from earlier in the term in which you made an argument. Please cut-and-paste that post here and then provide an analysis of the argument you made using any of the tools and terminology (see the Norton and our other readings) we have discussed this term. How do you develop the "key features" of arguments (p. 169)? Did you argue logically (p. 356)? How do you connect with your audience?
This is a 15-point assignment that is separate from your other Discussion work this week. Put a little extra oomph into it, and make your analysis clear.
I’m looking forward to seeing your analysis of your own arguments and methods,
Prof. Warnock
Here is a straightforward prompt to help students generate ideas about projects:
Talk about Project 2
Hi everyone,
We have been discussing how Project 2 is unconventional and challenging. Let’s use this thread to have some conversation about it during the course of the week as you work on your drafts. We have done a number of readings, including Townsend this week, that can help you think about the many ways to look at how things influence you, how you learn things, and, well, transfer.
Looking forward to your questions and comments,
Prof. Warnock
Finally, I also use prompts, especially in courses framed around argument, to encourage persuasive writing. However, I don’t think they have to battle it out over sensitive argument topics:
Argument statement: Writing technologies
Dear students,
Some weeks, I’ll ask you to post what we will call “Argument Statements.” Basically, I’m asking each of you to write a short argument here on the Discussions. I hope you use these Arguments Statements to take risks and try something new. See the syllabus for a little more information.
This week, I asked you to read a couple of brief pieces about writing online or writing with digital tools/apps. Please write your Argument Statement about how technology – and you can define this any way you like – affects your writing.
I hope these Argument Statements are good practice in writing arguments and that you find them, well, fun.
Feel free to respond to someone’s Argument Statement as a secondary post.
Best,
Professor Warnock
I think people are drawn to teaching because of the creativity it engenders. For me, I found a whole new area of creativity when I started designing these asynchronous writing prompts. And I've got a 100+-page Word file full of them to prove it.

Note:
1) From Sarah Allen's Writing Spaces piece, "The Inspired Writer vs. the Real Writer." Writing Spaces is a great resource.

Friday, March 31, 2017

Building a prompt: Characteristics of prompts

Last time, I wrote about types of prompts that can help you be successful in starting asynchronous conversations.

As promised, in this post I want to describe several characteristics of good prompts:
  1. A clear, succinct subject line. Also, if your discussion/messaging software allows it, encourage students to change the subject when appropriate, i.e., when the conversation has gone in a different direction.
  2. Clear, direct language. Think about OWI Principle 3 Effective Practice 3.1: “When text is the primary medium, OWI teachers should use written language that is readable and comprehensible” (12).
  3. Salutation/greeting. The salutation/greeting is valuable territory: Don’t waste it. You have a chance to use your voice. Sometimes you may be formal. Sometimes you may be welcoming, friendly, or even playful. Plus, you want students being clear about who the audience of their posts are: Often, they reply to a particular person but don't indicate this in their salutation/greeting. You should model this: “Dear students” or something similar is fine.
  4. Goal or objective. With a few words,  you can make the goal of the prompt clear.
  5. Specific instruction. What are students to do in this thread? Sometimes “just write” is good enough. Sometimes it’s not.
  6. Context. Make it clear how the thread the prompt begins will fit into what is happening in the course.
  7. Minimal number of questions and scaffolding. This is a key area in which teachers get into trouble, I find: they overdo it with prompt complexity and length, forgetting that both they and the students will build the conversation as it goes; you don’t need to front-load everything.
  8. Further anchoring of prompt to material/texts in the course. Many first-year programs in particular have required, program-wide texts, and I have seen teachers struggle to find ways to use these texts in their courses. You can almost always anchor your prompts to some lesson or aspect of the writing book you are using in your course – look for ways to do that. By the way, I find this type of connecting works better in online writing courses than in onsite courses.
  9. Possible broadening of topic. Students’ main goal may be analyzing an argument, but at the end of a prompt, you can also ask their stances on the argument’s subject matter. I find these subtopics get picked up at the end of the week.
  10. Complimentary closing. Like the salutation/greeting, this is valuable space that is often squandered. You can overtly invite questions and comments. You can also get a lot of voice/personality mileage out of a few words: “Interested in what you have to say” can be an encouraging close to a prompt.
  11. Sign off. If you're going to be "Prof. Warnock" to your class, write that. You may be "Dr. Warnock." You may be "Scott."
  12. Works cited. If appropriate, do it. I ask students to cite in their posts, and I think I should model that practice.
Of course, not every characteristic will be included in every prompt. But if you consider this 11-item list as being a basis for constructing prompts, I think you’ll end up with good ways to spur your students’ writing.

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